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Auteur Petr Pyšek
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13. Plant invasions and invasibility of plant communities / Marcel Rejmánek (2004)
Titre : 13. Plant invasions and invasibility of plant communities Type de document : Extrait d'ouvrage Auteurs : Marcel Rejmánek (1946-) ; David Mark Richardson (1958-) ; Petr Pyšek Année de publication : 2004 Importance : 332-355 Langues : Anglais (eng) Catégories : [Thématique] Plantes subspontanées, naturalisées, envahissantesRejmánek, M., Richardson, D.M., Pyšek, P., 2004 - 13. Plant invasions and invasibility of plant communities ; in : , [sans date], 332-355.Alien flora of Europe : species diversity, temporal trends, geographical patterns and research needs / Philip W. Lambdon (2008)
contenu dans 80 - 2008 (Preslia)
Titre : Alien flora of Europe : species diversity, temporal trends, geographical patterns and research needs Type de document : Tiré à part de revue Auteurs : Philip W. Lambdon ; Petr Pyšek ; Corina Basnou ; Martin Hejda ; Margarita Arianoutsou ; Franz Essl (1973-) ; Vojtěch Jarošík (1958-2013) ; Jan Pergl (1977-) ; Marten Winter ; Paulina Anastasiu ; Pavlos Andriopoulos ; Ioannis Bazos ; Giuseppe Brundu ; Laura Celesti-Grapow ; Philippe Chassot ; Pinelopi Delipetrou ; Mélanie Josefsson ; Salit Kark ; Stefan Klotz ; Yannis Kokkoris ; Ingolf Kühn ; Andreas Zikos ; David Roy ; Philip Eric Hulme Année de publication : 2008 Importance : 101–149 Langues : Anglais (eng) Catégories : [Thématique] Plantes subspontanées, naturalisées, envahissantes Résumé : The paper provides the first estimate of the composition and structure of alien plants occurring in the wild in the European continent, based on the results of the DAISIE project (2004–2008), funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union and aimed at “creating an inventory of invasive species that threaten European terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments”. The plant section of the DAISIE database is based on national checklists from 48 European countries/regions and Israel; for many of them the data were compiled during the project and for some countries DAISIE collected the first comprehensive checklists of alien species, based on primary data (e.g., Cyprus, Greece, F. Y. R. O. Macedonia, Slovenia, Ukraine). In total, the database contains records of 5789 alien plant species in Europe (including those native to a part of Europe but alien to another part), of which 2843 are alien to Europe (of extra-European origin). The research focus was on naturalized species; there are in total 3749 naturalized aliens in Europe, of which 1780 are alien to Europe. This represents a marked increase compared to 1568 alien species reported by a previous analysis of data in Flora Europaea (1964–1980). Casual aliens were marginally considered and are represented by 1507 species with European origins and 872 species whose native range falls outside Europe. The highest diversity of alien species is concentrated in industrialized countries with a tradition of good botanical recording or intensive recent research. The highest number of all alien species, regardless of status, is reported from Belgium (1969), the United Kingdom (1779) and Czech Republic (1378). The United Kingdom (857), Germany (450), Belgium (447) and Italy (440) are countries with the most naturalized neophytes. The number of naturalized neophytes in European countries is determined mainly by the interaction of temperature and precipitation; it increases with increasing precipitation but only in climatically warm and moderatelywarm regions. Of the nowadays naturalized neophytes alien to Europe, 50% arrived after 1899, 25% after 1962 and 10% after 1989. At present, approximately 6.2 new species, that are capable of naturalization, are arriving each year. Most alien species have relatively restricted European distributions; half of all naturalized species occur in four or fewer countries/regions, whereas 70% of non-naturalized species occur in only one region. Alien species are drawn from 213 families, dominated by large global plant families which have a weedy tendency and have undergone major radiations in temperate regions (Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae). There are 1567 genera, which have alien members in European countries, the commonest being globally-diverse genera comprising mainly urban and agricultural weeds (e.g., Amaranthus, Chenopodium and Solanum) or cultivated for ornamental purposes (Cotoneaster, the genus richest in alien species). Only a few large genera which have successfully invaded (e.g., Oenothera, Oxalis, Panicum, Helianthus) are predominantly of non-European origin. Conyza canadensis, Helianthus tuberosus and Robinia pseudoacacia are most widely distributed alien species. Of all naturalized aliens present in Europe, 64.1% occur in industrial habitats and 58.5% on arable land and in parks and gardens. Grasslands and woodlands are also highly invaded, with 37.4 and 31.5%, respectively, of all naturalized aliens in Europe present in these habitats. Mires, bogs and fens are least invaded; only approximately 10% of aliens in Europe occur there. Intentional introductions to Europe (62.8% of the total number of naturalized aliens) prevail over unintentional (37.2%). Ornamental and horticultural introductions escaped from cultivation account for the highest number of species, 52.2% of the total. Among unintentional introductions, contaminants of seed, mineral materials and other commodities are responsible for 1091 alien species introductions to Europe (76.6% of all species introduced unintentionally) and 363 species are assumed to have arrived as stowaways (directly associated with human transport but arriving independently of commodity). Most aliens in Europe have a native range in the same continent (28.6% of all donor region records are from another part of Europe where the plant is native); in terms of species numbers the contribution of Europe as a region of origin is 53.2%. Considering aliens to Europe separately, 45.8% of species have their native distribution in North and South America, 45.9% in Asia, 20.7% in Africa and 5.3% in Australasia. Based on species composition, European alien flora can be classified into five major groups: (1) north-western, comprising Scandinavia and the UK; (2) west-central, extending from Belgium and the Netherlands to Germany and Switzerland; (3) Baltic, including only the former Soviet Baltic states; (4) east-central, comprizing the remainder of central and eastern Europe; (5) southern, covering the entire Mediterranean region. The clustering patterns cut across some European bioclimatic zones; cultural factors such as regional trade links and traditional local preferences for crop, forestry and ornamental species are also important by influencing the introduced species pool. Finally, the paper evaluates a state of the art in the field of plant invasions in Europe, points to research gaps and outlines avenues of further research towards documenting alien plant invasions in Europe. The data are of varying quality and need to be further assessed with respect to the invasion status and residence time of the species included. This concerns especially the naturalized/casual status; so far, this information is available comprehensively for only 19 countries/regions of the 49 considered. Collating an integrated database on the alien flora of Europe can form a principal contribution to developing a European-wide management strategy of alien species. Identifiant pérenne : HAL : hal-02666016 / Handle : 10261/61126Lambdon, P.W., Pyšek, P., Basnou, C., Hejda, M., Arianoutsou, M., Essl, F., Jarošík, V., Pergl, J., Winter, M., Anastasiu, P., Andriopoulos, P., Bazos, I., Brundu, G., Celesti-Grapow, L., Chassot, P., Delipetrou, P., Josefsson, M., Kark, S., Klotz, S., Kokkoris, Y., Kühn, I., Zikos, A., Roy, D., Hulme, P.E., 2008 - Alien flora of Europe : species diversity, temporal trends, geographical patterns and research needs ; Preslia, 80 : 101–149.
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Alien plants introduced by different pathways differ in invasion success : unintentional introductions as a threat to natural areas / Petr Pyšek in Plos One, 6 (9) (09/2011)
Titre : Alien plants introduced by different pathways differ in invasion success : unintentional introductions as a threat to natural areas Type de document : Électronique Auteurs : Petr Pyšek ; Vojtěch Jarošík (1958-2013) ; Jan Pergl (1977-) Année de publication : 2011 Article en page(s) : 1-11 Langues : Anglais (eng) Catégories : [Thématique] Plantes subspontanées, naturalisées, envahissantes Résumé : Background : Understanding the dimensions of pathways of introduction of alien plants is important for regulating species invasions, but how particular pathways differ in terms of post-invasion success of species they deliver has never been rigorously tested. We asked whether invasion status, distribution and habitat range of 1,007 alien plant species introduced after 1500 A.D. to the Czech Republic differ among four basic pathways of introduction recognized for plants. Principal Findings : Pathways introducing alien species deliberately as commodities (direct release into the wild; escape from cultivation) result in easier naturalization and invasion than pathways of unintentional introduction (contaminant of a commodity; stowaway arriving without association with it). The proportion of naturalized and invasive species among all introductions delivered by a particular pathway decreases with a decreasing level of direct assistance from humans associated with that pathway, from release and escape to contaminant and stowaway. However, those species that are introduced via unintentional pathways and become invasive are as widely distributed as deliberately introduced species, and those introduced as contaminants invade an even wider range of seminatural habitats. Conclusions : Pathways associated with deliberate species introductions with commodities and pathways whereby species are unintentionally introduced are contrasting modes of introductions in terms of invasion success. However, various measures of the outcome of the invasion process, in terms of species' invasion success, need to be considered to accurately evaluate the role of and threat imposed by individual pathways. By employing various measures we show that invasions by unintentionally introduced plant species need to be considered by management as seriously as those introduced by horticulture, because they invade a wide range of seminatural habitats, hence representing even a greater threat to natural areas. Identifiant pérenne : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0024890
in Plos One > 6 (9) (09/2011) . - 1-11Pyšek, P., Jarošík, V., Pergl, J., 2011 - Alien plants introduced by different pathways differ in invasion success : unintentional introductions as a threat to natural areas ; Plos One, 6 (9) : 1-11.
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Alien vascular plants of Europe / Petr Pyšek (2009)
Titre : Alien vascular plants of Europe Type de document : Extrait d'ouvrage Auteurs : Petr Pyšek ; Philip W. Lambdon ; Margarita Arianoutsou Année de publication : 2009 Importance : 43-61 Langues : Anglais (eng) Catégories : [Thématique] Plantes subspontanées, naturalisées, envahissantes Résumé : In terms of invasion biology, vascular plants are the most intensively researched taxonomic group; at least 395 plant invaders have been addressed in detailed case studies globally, accounting for 44% of all invasive taxa studied; after North America, Europe is the continent enjoying the most intensive study with at least 80 invasive plant species having been addressed (Pyŝek et al. 2008). However, although there is a considerable body of information on major plant invaders in Europe (see also Weber 2003), the situation is much less satisfactory as far as complete national inventories of alien plants are concerned. Prior to the DAISIE project (www.europe-aliens.org), only few countries had a sound information on the composition of their alien floras, available in specialised checklists, notably Austria (Essl and Rabitsch 2002), the Czech Republic (Pyek et al. 2002), Germany (Klotz et al. 2002; Kühn and Klotz 2003), Ireland (Reynolds 2002) and the UK (Clement and Foster 1994; Preston et al. 2002, 2004). This situation directly translated into poor knowledge across the European continent. The only available continental analysis of plant invasion patterns in Europe (Weber 1997) was based on data from Flora Europaea (Tutin et al. 1964–1980), the only synthetic source of information on floras of particular countries, including alien species. This source is, however, nowadays outdated and contains numerous inaccuracies in data for individual countries (Pyŝek 2003). In general, information on the presence and distribution of alien plant species for most European countries was scattered in a variety of published and unpublished accounts and databases; this is the case in other continents too (Meyerson and Mooney 2007). On the plant side, DAISIE was thus a major challenge of collating and assessing existing data on the most numerous group of European aliens and concentrating this information in an authoritative continental inventory. Identifiant pérenne : DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4020-8280-1_4Pyšek, P., Lambdon, P.W., Arianoutsou, M., 2009 - Alien vascular plants of Europe ; in : Handbook of alien species in Europe, 2009, 43-61.Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic (2nd edition) : checklist update, taxonomic diversity and invasion patterns / Petr Pyšek (2012)
contenu dans 84 - 2012 (Preslia)
Titre : Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic (2nd edition) : checklist update, taxonomic diversity and invasion patterns Type de document : Tiré à part de revue Auteurs : Petr Pyšek ; Jiří Danihelka (1968-) ; Jiří Sádlo (1958-) ; Jindrich Chrtek ; Milan Chytrý (1967-) ; Vojtěch Jarošík (1958-2013) ; Zdenek Kaplan ; František Krahulec ; Lenka Moravcová ; Jan Pergl (1977-) ; Kateřina Štajerová ; Lubomír Tichý Année de publication : 2012 Importance : 155–255 Langues : Anglais (eng) Catégories : [Thématique] Plantes subspontanées, naturalisées, envahissantes
[Géographique] République Tchèque
Résumé : A complete list of all alien taxa ever recorded in the flora of the Czech Republic is presented as an update of the original checklist published in 2002. New data accumulated in the last decade are incorporated and the listing and status of some taxa are reassessed based on improved knowledge. Alien flora of the Czech Republic consists of 1454 taxa listed with information on their taxonomic position, life history, geographic origin (or mode of origin, distinguishing anecophyte and hybrid), invasive status (casual; naturalized but not invasive; invasive), residence time status (archaeophyte vs neophyte), mode of introduction into the country (accidental, deliberate), and date of the first record. Additional information on species performance that was not part of the previous catalogue, i.e. on the width of species’ habitat niches, their dominance in invaded communities, and impact, is provided. The Czech alien flora consists of 350 (24.1%) archaeophytes and 1104 (75.9%) neophytes. The increase in the total number of taxa compared to the previous catalogue (1378) is due to addition of 151 taxa and removal of 75 (39 archaeophytes and 36 neophytes), important part of the latter being the reclassification of 41 taxa as native, mostly based on archaeobotanical evidence. The additions represent taxa newly recorded since 2002 and reported in the national literature; taxa resulting from investigation of sources omitted while preparing the previous catalogue; redetermination of previously reported taxa; reassessment of some taxa traditionally considered native for which the evidence suggests the opposite; and inclusion of intraspecific taxa previously not recognized in the flora. There are 44 taxa on the list that are reported in the present study for the first time as aliens introduced to the Czech Republic or escaped from cultivation: Abies concolor, A. grandis, A. nordmanniana, Avena sterilis subsp. ludoviciana, A. ×vilis, Berberis julianae, B. thunbergii, Bidens ferulifolius, Buddleja alternifolia, Buglossoides incrassata subsp. splitgerberi, Buxus sempervirens, Corispermum declinatum, Cotoneaster dielsianus, C. divaricatus, Euphorbia myrsinites, Gleditsia triacanthos, Helleborus orientalis, Hieracium heldreichii, Koelreuteria paniculata, Lonicera periclymenum, Lotus ornithopodioides, Malus baccata, M. pumila, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Morus alba, Muscari armeniacum, Paeonia lactiflora, Pennisetum alopecuroides, Pinguicula crystallina subsp. hirtiflora, P. grandiflora subsp. rosea, Podophyllum hexandrum, Pyracantha coccinea, Rhodotypos scandens, Rumex patientia × R. tianschanicus ‘Uteuša’, Salix cordata, Sarracenia purpurea, Sasa palmata ‘Nebulosa’, Scolymus maculatus, Spiraea japonica, Tagetes tenuifolia, Thuja occidentalis, Trifolium badium, Vaccinium corymbosum and Viburnum rhytidophyllum. All added and deleted taxa are commented on. Of the total number of taxa, 985 are classified as casuals, 408 as naturalized but not invasive, and 61 as invasive. The reduction in the number of invasive taxa compared to the previous catalogue is due to a more conservative approach adopted here; only taxa that currently spread are considered invasive. Casual taxa are strongly over-represented among neophytes compared to archaeophytes (76.7% vs 39.4%), while naturalized but non-invasive taxa follow the reversed pattern (18.8% vs 57.4). However, these two groups do not significantly differ in the proportion of invasive taxa. Of introduced neophytes, 250 taxa (22.6%) are considered vanished, i.e. no longer present in the flora, while 23.3% became naturalized, and 4.5% invasive. In addition to the traditional classification based on introduction–naturalization–invasion continuum, taxa were classified into 18 population groups based on their long-term trends in metapopulation dynamics in the country, current state of their populations, and link to the propagule pressure from cultivation. Mapping these population groups onto the unified framework for biological invasions introduced by Blackburn et al. in 2011 made it possible to quantify invasion failures, and boom-and-busts, in the Czech alien flora. Depending on inclusion criteria (whether or not extinct/vanished taxa and hybrids are considered), alien taxa ever recorded in the Czech Republic contribute 29.7–33.1% to the total country’s plant diversity; taking into account only naturalized taxa, a permanent element of the country’s flora, the figure is 14.4–17.5%. Analysis of the dates of the first record, known for 771 neophytes, indicates that alien taxa in the flora have been increasing at a steady pace without any distinct deceleration trend; by extrapolating this data to all 1104 neophytes recorded it is predicted that the projected number would reach 1264 in 2050. Deliberate introduction was involved in 747 cases (51.4%), the remaining 48.6% of taxa are assumed to have arrived by unintentional pathways. Archaeophytes are more abundant in landscapes, occupy on average a wider range of habitat types than neophytes, but reach a lower cover in plant communities. The alien flora is further analysed with respect to representation of genera and families, origin and life history.Pyšek, P., Danihelka, J., Sádlo, J., Chrtek, J., Chytrý, M., Jarošík, V., Kaplan, Z., Krahulec, F., Moravcová, L., Pergl, J., Štajerová, K., Tichý, L., 2012 - Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic (2nd edition) : checklist update, taxonomic diversity and invasion patterns ; Preslia, 84 : 155–255.
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Article (2012)Adobe Acrobat PDF
Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic (2nd edition) : checklist update, taxonomic diversity and invasion patterns Electronic Appendix 1. / Petr Pyšek in Preslia, 84 (2012)PermalinkCatalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic (2nd edition) : checklist update, taxonomic diversity and invasion patterns Electronic Appendix 2 / Petr Pyšek in Preslia, 84 (2012)PermalinkClonality and plant invasions : can a trait make a difference? / Petr Pyšek (1997)PermalinkA compendium of essential concepts and terminology in invasion ecology (chapter 30) / David Mark Richardson (2011)PermalinkDifferences in germination and seedling establishment of alien and native Impatiens species / Irena Perglova in Preslia, 81 (2009)PermalinkDisentangling the role of environmental and human pressures on biological invasions across Europe / Petr Pyšek in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107 (27) (2010)PermalinkEuropean map of alien plant invasions based on the quantitative assessment across habitats / Milan Chytrý in Diversity and Distributions, 15 (2009)PermalinkA global assessment of invasive plant impacts on resident species, communities and ecosystems : the interaction of impact measures, invading species traits and environment / Petr Pyšek in Global Change Biology, 18 (2012)PermalinkGlobal guidelines for the sustainable use of non-native trees to prevent tree invasions and mitigate their negative impacts / Giuseppe Brundu in Neobiota, 61 (2020)PermalinkGlossary of the main technical terms used in the handbook / Petr Pyšek (2009)Permalink