Mention de date : 2013
Journal of ecology / British Ecological Society . 101
Paru le : 01/01/2013
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Biological flora of the British isles : Robinia pseudoacacia / Arne Cierjacks in Journal of ecology, 101 (2013)
Titre : Biological flora of the British isles : Robinia pseudoacacia Type de document : Électronique Auteurs : Arne Cierjacks (1972-) ; Ingo Kowarik (1955-) ; Jasmin Joshi ; Stefan Hempel ; Michael Ristow ; Moritz Lippe (von der) ; Ewald Weber (1960-) Année de publication : 2013 Article en page(s) : 1623–1640 Langues : Anglais (eng) Catégories : [Thématique] Plantes subspontanées, naturalisées, envahissantes Mots-clés : Robinia pseudoacacia L., 1753 Lien pérenne : DOI : 10.1111/1365-2745.12162
in Journal of ecology > 101 (2013) . - 1623–1640Cierjacks, A., Kowarik, I., Joshi, J., Hempel, S., Ristow, M., Lippe (von der), M., Weber, E. 2013. Biological flora of the British isles : Robinia pseudoacacia. Journal of ecology, 101: 1623–1640.
Relative contributions of plant traits and soil microbial properties to mountain grassland ecosystem services / Karl Grigulis in Journal of ecology, 101 (2013)
Titre : Relative contributions of plant traits and soil microbial properties to mountain grassland ecosystem services Type de document : Imprimé Auteurs : Karl Grigulis ; Sandra Lavorel (1965-) ; Ute krainer ; Nicolas Legay ; Catherine Baxendale ; Maxime Dumont ; Eva Kastl ; Cindy Arnoldi ; Richard D. Bardgett ; Franck Poly ; Thomas Pommier ; Michael Schloter ; Ulrike Tappeiner ; Michael Bahn ; Jean-Christophe Clément Année de publication : 2013 Article en page(s) : 47-57 Langues : Anglais (eng) Catégories : [Thématique] Revégétalisation Note de contenu : 1 Plant functional diversity and soil microbial community composition are tightly coupled. Changes in these interactions may influence ecosystem functioning. Links between plant functional diversity, soil microbial communities and ecosystem functioning have been demonstrated in experiments using plant monocultures and mixtures, using broad plant and microbial functional groups, but have not been examined in diverse natural plant communities. 2 We quantified the relative effects of plant and microbial functional properties on key ecosystem functions. We measured plant functional diversity, soil microbial community composition and parameters associated with nitrogen (N) cycling and key nutrient cycling processes at three grassland sites in different parts of Europe. Because plant structure and function strongly influence soil microbial communities, we determined relationships between ecosystem properties, plant traits and soil community characteristics following a sequential approach in which plant traits were fitted first, followed by the additional effects of soil micro-organisms. 3 We identified a continuum from standing green biomass and standing litter, linked mostly with plant traits, to potential N mineralization and potential leaching of soil inorganic N, linked mostly with microbial properties. Plant and microbial functional parameters were equally important in explaining % organic matter content in soil. A parallel continuum ran from plant height, linked with above-ground biomass, to plant quality effects captured by the leaf economics spectrum, which were linked with the recycling of carbon (C) and N. 4 More exploitative species (higher specific leaf area, leaf N concentrations and lower leaf dry matter content) and taller swards, along with soil microbial communities dominated by bacteria, with rapid microbial activities, were linked with greater fodder production, but poor C and N retention. Conversely, dominance by conservative species (with opposite traits) and soil microbial communities dominated by fungi, and bacteria with slow activities, were usually linked with low production, but greater soil C storage and N retention. 5 Synthesis – Grassland production, C sequestration and soil N retention are jointly related to plant and microbial functional traits. Managing grasslands for selected, or multiple, ecosystem services will thus require a consideration of the joint effects of plant and soil communities. Further understanding of the mechanisms that link plant and microbial functional traits is essential to achieve this. Lien pérenne : DOI : 10.1111/1365-2745.12014
in Journal of ecology > 101 (2013) . - 47-57Grigulis, K., Lavorel, S., krainer, U., Legay, N., Baxendale, C., Dumont, M., Kastl, E., Arnoldi, C., Bardgett, RD., Poly, F., Pommier, T., Schloter, M., Tappeiner, U., Bahn, M., Clément, J.C. 2013. Relative contributions of plant traits and soil microbial properties to mountain grassland ecosystem services. Journal of ecology, 101: 47-57.
Plant functional effects on ecosystem services / Sandra Lavorel in Journal of ecology, 101 (2013)
Titre : Plant functional effects on ecosystem services Type de document : Imprimé Auteurs : Sandra Lavorel (1965-) Année de publication : 2013 Article en page(s) : 4-8 Langues : Français (fre) Catégories : [Thématique] Restauration des écosystèmes
Résumé : 1 The prominent new place of ecosystem services in environmental policy, land management and land planning requires that the best ecological knowledge be applied to ecosystem service quantification. Given strong evidence that functional diversity underpins the delivery of key ecosystem services, assessments of these services may progress rapidly using a trait-based approach. 2 The trait-based approach shows promising results, especially for plant trait effects on primary production and some processes associated with carbon and nitrogen cycling in grasslands. However, there is a need to extend the proof of concept for a wider range of ecosystems and ecosystem services and to incorporate not only the functional characteristics of plants but those of other organisms with which plants interact for the provision of ecosystem services. 3 The five papers in this Special Feature illustrate how some of the key conceptual and methodological challenges can be resolved, and provide a range of case studies across three continents. Relevant plant functional traits depict different axes of variation including stature, the leaf economics spectrum, and associated or independent variations in root or stem traits. The application of the trait approach to ecosystem processes underpinned by interactions between plants and other biota is illustrated for soil micro-organisms and granivorous invertebrates. There is strong evidence for the biomass ratio hypothesis (i.e. prevalent effects of the traits of dominant species through the community-weighted mean), along with less prevalent and more complex effects of heterogeneous trait values between species (i.e. functional divergence). 4 Synthesis. Together, the five papers in this Special Feature illustrate how trait-based approaches may help elucidate the complexity of ecological mechanisms operating in the field to determine ecosystem service delivery. To address scientific and management questions about the provision of multiple services, progress is needed in understanding how functional trade-offs and synergies within organisms scale up to interactions between ecosystem services. Service-oriented ecosystem management within the context of global change, or ecological restoration, remains a major challenge, but trait-based understanding opens new avenues towards more generic, integrated approaches. Note de contenu :
Lien pérenne : DOI : 10.1111/1365-2745.12031
in Journal of ecology > 101 (2013) . - 4-8Lavorel, S. 2013. Plant functional effects on ecosystem services. Journal of ecology, 101: 4-8.
Biological flora of the British isles : Gunnera tinctoria / Margherita Gioria in Journal of ecology, 101 (2013)
Titre : Biological flora of the British isles : Gunnera tinctoria Type de document : Électronique Auteurs : Margherita Gioria ; Bruce A. Osborne Année de publication : 2013 Article en page(s) : 243-264 Langues : Anglais (eng) Catégories : [Thématique] Plantes subspontanées, naturalisées, envahissantes Mots-clés : Gunnera tinctoria (Molina) Mirb Résumé : 1 This account presents information on all aspects of the biology of Gunnera tinctoria (Molina) Mirb. (G. chilensis Lam.; G. scabra Ruix & Pav.; G. pilosa Kunth) that are relevant to understanding its ecological characteristics and behaviour. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the Biological Flora of the British Isles: distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, history and conservation. 2 Gunnera tinctoria is a gynomonoecious, clonal, perennial herb that is naturalized in parts of Britain, becoming invasive in parts of Ireland and, more recently, Scotland. It occurs where winter temperatures are mild, and precipitation and humidity are high. Gunnera tinctoria is native to South America, predominantly in the Andean region of Chile and Colombia, and probably in parts of Argentina, ranging from sea level to c. 2000 m a.s.l. 3 Typical habitats in Britain and Ireland include stream and river banks, lake and pond margins, coastal cliffs, as well as disturbed areas, such as roadsides, quarries and ditches. In its native range it occurs predominantly on the banks of rivers and streams, on coastal cliffs and within canopy gaps or at the margins of temperate-humid rain forests. 4 Gunnera tinctoria occurs on a variety of substrates, mainly on alluvial or colluvial soils derived from volcanic material or on thin gley soils of marine origin. In Ireland, it occurs naturally on soils with a pH ranging from 4.6 to 6.2 and has been cultivated in soils with a pH up to 7. Soil moisture content and soil organic matter vary greatly, although it rarely colonizes highly organic soils such as peat. It is susceptible to even mild water deficits at all stages of development, and its seedlings are also sensitive to waterlogged conditions. 5 Gunnera tinctoria produces large numbers of seeds and also spreads clonally, by a horizontal rhizome system. It is wind pollinated, although insect pollination has been reported in New Zealand. Seeds are likely to be predominantly water and/or bird dispersed. In its invasive range, it can form a large and persistent soil seed bank. Recruitment from seeds seems to be important for its initial establishment, while vegetative propagation is the main means of expansion, leading to dense clonal stands. Long-distance seed dispersal seems to be central to the colonization of new areas, although the transport of vegetative propagules may also be important. 6 Gunnera tinctoria is a strong competitor in its invasive range, particularly in wet, humid environments. Its competitive ability arises from its large stature, the persistence of its seeds and rhizomes and a capacity for fixing nitrogen through a unique intracellular symbiosis with cyanobacteria (Nostoc) that may be particularly important for supporting the rapid growth of established plants early in the spring.
Lien pérenne : DOI : 10.1111/1365-2745.12022
in Journal of ecology > 101 (2013) . - 243-264Gioria, M., Osborne, BA. 2013. Biological flora of the British isles : Gunnera tinctoria. Journal of ecology, 101: 243-264.